Work-family and intensity of work family conflict. Additionally,

Work-family conflict is a advancing for modern society, in a huge majority of men and
women tells that work interferes with their family responsibilities (Glavin & Schieman, 2012).
Work–family conflict refers to an ill-assorted or incompatibility between the work and family
role demands. Therefore, the work-family relationship has been creating as a bi-directional
construct where work roles impacts on family roles, work can reinforce family well-being and
positive aspects of family life can fix into work place. Then, a concept of work-life combination
should depict more flexible boundaries where individuals have greater influence on the definition
of their work and non work lives. The choice of plan is to handle the work-family conflict is
dependent on the recognized differences between the two domains, on the strength of the
borders, which are resolved by their permeability and flexibility (Saucan et al., 2015).
Work-family conflict collects widespread attention in modern society beyond human
resources management, huge researches in this area different studies report inconsistent and even
contradictory findings on the effects and intensity of work family conflict. Additionally, the
overlap in time and place between traditional family and work roles may also introduce new
opportunities for work-family conflict to manifest in people’s everyday lives (Yili Liu & Lina
Zhou., 2017). Work-family conflict is defined as the pressure produced by different demands
from work and family domains, where the pressure from both work and family domains are illmatched
in some regard (Restubog et al, 2011).
Work-family conflict is started because of the different work and family demographic
trends in the United States and around the globe, including growing numbers of mothers with
children under 18 in the labor force; the rapid rise in elder care demands due to an aging
population; and an increase in men’s involvement with family care giving demands, particularly
in developed Western countries (Kossek & Malaterre, 2013). Work-family conflict affects most
of the society. Even without married people and those without children will complain having
some work-family conflict as all individuals (Casper, Weltman, & Kwesiga, 2007). Work-life
conflict is a part of work-family conflict image the reality that the work role may interfere with
family’ other personal life events and interests. With the family role (Kossek, 2016). While for
many employees work-family conflict is a key factor use the term “work-life conflict” to show
the many extra non-work demands in individual’s lives that are not confined to those involving
the family (Wilson & Baumann, 2015). A real number of work family research based on a
conflict situation, where the demands of work and family are observed as opposed because of
conflicts caused by time, behavior, or strain (Ruppanner, 2013).
In recent years, researchers differently measured work-family conflict first, it was
measured in a simpler way, in which they measuring the conflict that occurs when work is
interfered with family just now, researchers starts to identify the double nature of work–family
conflict by measuring both possible directions the interference of work with family and also of
family with work (Hytti et al., 2015).
In other countries some researchers indicated that work–family conflict could positively
affect turnover intention. Researchers also tell that there were neither direct nor indirect
relationships between work–family conflict and turnover intention (Armstrong et al., 2015). Both
work and family responsibilities is a problem for many workers in these days, whether employed
or self-employed. Workers have different roles in the work and family domains. When these
roles are mutually incompatible in some way, a form of inter-role conflict arises this may take
the form of work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict (Annink et al., 2016).
Workers especially women and/or parents often believe that self-employment will ease
the pressure of combining work and family Self-employment enables workers to combine
income, flexibility and control over their work and childcare (Sullivan and Meek 2012). The
importance of preventing WFC is acknowledged by the European Union, who sets guidelines
for support. However, although governments are giving increasingly attention to reconciling
paid employment and parenting, research shows those arrangements for the self-employed lag
behind those for employees and that they differ across European countries (Annink et al. 2015).
They originate that if the job demands are high it create conflicts between work and family life
and they are negatively associate to work–life balance. However, they also found that the level
of job control hardly varies among the self-employed. This is not unpredicted, as job control is
related to individual’s management and performance, which can be seen as inherent to selfemployment
(Nordenmark et al. 2012).
The life-course aspects provide a unique framework and concepts such as historical time,
transitions, or linked lives to examine work-family conflict. Contemporary workers are less
probable to spend their whole career and regularly advance in one organization, and feel secure
in their jobs than workers from previous decades. Yet they are more likely to customize their
timing of retirement, pursue flexible work arrangements such as reduced workload and
timework, and seek work-family balance (Greenhaus & Kossek, 2014). One main
methodological issue is construct overlap, such as the work-family conflict and work-life
conflict issues noted earlier. Work-family conflict and work-family balance are also closely
comparable concepts. While there seems to be a agreement between scholars that work-family
balance is distinct from work-family conflict, empirical evidence is scarce (Greenhaus & Allen,
2010). Neuroticism had the strongest positive relationship with both work-to-family and familyto-work
conflict among the big five personality characteristics. While agreeableness and
conscientiousness were negatively associated with work-family conflict, extraversion and
openness to experience were not (Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum 2012).
Work-Family Conflict is an important line of inquiry in organizational behavior and
human resource management research. The topic is relevant to the computing and
communication field not only because modern communication technologies allow for more
integration of work and family roles than ever before but because recent advances in computing
technology offer new ways to respond to and understand work-family conflict (Maertz & Boyar
2016). For all peoples work and family are two important domains, work family conflict is
experienced when there is conflict between pressures in other domain. Work family conflict can
be classified into time- and strain based categories, along with others. Specifically, the time
devoted to and the strain produced by work make it difficult to fulfill requirements of family
and vice versa (Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010).
Work family conflict has been empirically linked with employees’ job and life
dissatisfaction, poor physical and psychological health, and rising voluntary turnover rates and
work stress (Cheng et al., 2015). While it is obviously of interest to know whether inter-role
conflicts are connected with the health, it is of equal importance to explore potential antecedents
of work and family conflicts in employees with spinal cord injury and their partners with care
giving duty. There is two specific aspects that may have a role in the presence of conflicts,
namely the amount of engagement in productive activities (e.g., paid work, care giving) and
socioeconomic circumstances (e.g., level of income, education) Conflicts between work and
family life probably result from an interplay between one’s own and one ‘s partners ‘
participation in productive activities. For instance, the participation of both members of a
couple in paid works may exacerbate inter-role conflicts as both have less time resources for
family life (Fekete et al., 2017). Significant effort has gone toward trying to understand the
antecedents and role of work family conflict.
Research shows individual attributes and experience effect perception of work family
conflict, with two significant implications for the dynamics of work family conflict. Different
individuals may respond to the same work family conflict differently, and individuals may react
to the same work family conflict differently over time through their attempts to cope with work
family conflict and their changing situations (Carr et al., 2014). Percentage of working women
is increasing in day to day life, which is turn enhances the responsibility of women in both
private and outside world. So naturally the conflict appears, when they try to balance between
work and family. If these roles are not managed, it starts to work family conflict which creates
stress between employees. Employees try to satisfy the increasing work role and as well as
family responsibilities too. Work family conflict is related to stress and psychological strain
(Poelmans as cited in Ragles, 2016). Most researches in the area of work family conflict and
organizational role stress is conveying in various group of occupations via students, teachers
and police. Role stress influences the job satisfaction among the employees (Armstrong et al.,
2015).
Types of work-family conflict. Work family conflict can exist in two ways work can
interfere with family (WIF) and family can interfere with work (FIW). Carlson et al. (1998)
suggested six dimensions of work-family conflict. WIF and FIW each have three sub
dimensions time, strain, and behavior-based types of conflict. Time-based conflict happens
when the time demands of one role are ill-matched with those of another. The second form is
strain-based conflict, starts when strain in one domain influence with the other domain. The
third form, behavior-based conflict, happens when behavior pattern allocate to one domain are
arrogate in another (Aisyah et al., 2011).
Time based conflict. Time is an important aspect that has been linked with conflict
(Greenhaus as cited in fang, 2017). He reported time-based conflict as numerous roles may
challenge for a person’s time. Time used on activities within one role generally cannot be
faithful to activities within another role. Therefore, in the same time period an employee cannot
satisfy both roles, because they both influencing each other time-based conflict is stable with
excessive work time and schedule conflict, as well as role overload there is two type of timebased
conflict.
First, demands of time linked with one role’s membership may make it physically
impossible to obey with expectations arising from another, for example an employee might have
a lot of work at workplace or stay late at work for completing a project, therefore that thing
make it physically awkward to spend time with the family (Tang et al, 2015).
Second, time demands may also create an obsession with one role even if an individual is
physically attempting to meet another role’s demands (Huang et al., 2012). For instance one
employee has a big project to complete and the same time he comes home to spend time with
the family, and just thinking about the project (Matthews et al., 2011).
Strain-based conflict. A second type of work-family conflict happens when the strain
from one domain becomes incompatible to safe the requirements of another domain. Strain may
decrease personal resources that are needed for role responsibilities, for instance when there is
fatigue of work experiencing by a person, because of long working hours may he shift that to
the family domain and reduce his/her energy for family responsibilities (Ragles & Sakthivel,
2016). Strain that we practice in one role may span and starts to influence with other role for
example if one become stressed of having child which is sick, it affects the attentiveness level at
work place. If one practice occupational role conflict, role ambiguity at work and overloaded of
work then he may face work stress at work place (Cowlishaw et al., 2012).
Behavior based conflict. Behavior based conflict is a third type of work-family conflict.
It is start when person can’t balance behavior in order to meet the demands of two different role
behaviors. That is true that behavior in one domain influence the performance in other domain.
An immediate form of this conflict is when a person has difficulty in combining a logical and
managerial attitude at work with a sensitive and shared attitude with the family (Frone, 2005).
According to Bellavia and Frone, (2005), males are high on facing work-family conflict then
females, while females are high on facing Family-to-work conflict then males. There is
difference between energy-base and strain-base conflict.
Theories of work-family conflict. Numerous theories have been used to explain the
process that how work-family conflict linked to other variables. Grant-Vallone and Donaldson
(2001) stated express that research that examines work family conflict has advanced over the
last decade by the development of theoretical models, empirical studies, and organizational
sponsored work-family initiatives.
Role conflict theory. The role conflict theory states that experiencing doubtfulness or
conflict within a role will result in an undesirable state. Because conflicting demands between
roles (e.g., time, incompatible behaviors) conduct to personal conflict, it becomes harder to
perform each role successfully (Grandey & Cropanzano as cited in Ashley, 2017). “Role strain
or trouble in meeting role demands is assured” and a person “must frequently makes role
decisions and agreements in order to meet role requirement. Although some authors have used
role conflict theory and role theory as evidently replaceable frameworks, there are definite
differences between them. The role conflict theory outlines a deeper and more specific
framework that provides a richer understanding of various work-family conflict forms,
directions, and dimensions; these details are not presented in other theoretical frameworks. In
addition, researchers (e.g., Duxbury, Higgins, & Mills, 1992). Claimed that to understand workfamily
conflict both directions (work interference with family and family interference with
work) must be examine.
Spillover theory. Spillover theory describes work effect in family life. Positive spillover
is declared when the fulfillment, passion, happiness, and refreshment an individual has at work
crosses over into positive feelings and energy at home or when positive satisfaction, energy, and
happiness from home crosses over to a positive experience at work (Sthapit & Bjork, 2017).
Negative spillover from work to family is express when the problems, conflicts, or energy at
work has tense and engaged an individual, making it difficult to participate in family life
effectively and positively (Young & Rim, 2017). Of course, negative spillover from family to
work (e.g., divorce, problems with children, or the death of a close friend or family member)
can also be damaging.
Gender role theories. This theory find to explain gender differences in work family life.
Three of the familiar gender theories that represent three different sets of assumptions are the
biological influences, childhood socialization processes, and social structural factors in society.
According to Way (1991), “biological influences theory advance that sex differences in
attitudes, abilities, and temperaments are innate and that these innate differences cause males
and females to be differentially suited for certain work and family roles”. According to the
childhood socialization theories, formed and empirical personality differences lead males and
females to choose and even prefer different social roles.
Role theory. Another framework for exploring work-family conflict is the general role
theory. It introduce to a set of behaviors that have socially agreed-upon functions and an
accepted code of norms. Normal roles include spouse, parent, manager, employee, church
member, student, friend, and more. Roles can represent relationships or functions, and they are
necessary for the achievement of goals and the maintenance of group unity. A role set is the
entire mixture of roles a person occupies or plays at one time. Strain can occur when there are
conflicting and/or competing demands made by two or more roles held by one person. Role
theory conveys that multiple roles can lead to stressors (work overload and inter role conflict)
and, in turn, to symptoms of strain (Britton, 2017). Work overload raise to expectations that can
lead to an increase in workload and possible feelings of overload within the work or non work
domains. Inter role conflict refers primarily to the conflict between the roles. As mentioned
previously, role theory has a much larger and general scope regarding work-family conflict as
compared to the role conflict theory. Although one portion of the role theory focuses on role
conflict, it does not provide the detailed description of the related components as found in the
role conflict theory. Interesting, some authors occasionally infer that role conflict theory is one
construct within the broader role theory framework.
Identity theory. “Identity theory support that individuals seek to build desired images of
themselves, and anything that blocks creation of these directed images represents a threat to self
identification. Because conflict between work and family roles constitutes an obstacle to goals
of self-fulfillment, threats resulting from work-family conflict likely lead to job stress” (Gruber
& Macmillan, 2017). Introduce that work-family conflict represents a, “risk or obstacle to selfidentification
because it represents the degree to which work activities are blocked or reserved
by pressures and responsibilities at home and vice versa” . People are threatened when
obstacles to activities that have potential implications for identity damage their self-image.
Identity theory differs from role conflict theory and role theory because its basic property is
much broader than its use in this specific context. There are various psychological functions that
are served by developing a sense of identity (i.e., basic need for self-esteem or selfenhancement;
basic need for self-efficacy which is related to the sense of personal competence
and control; and it allows for the development of self-consistency or coherence). There are
many other constructs that can threaten or impede an individual’s ideal or perceived personal
identity, role conflict or work-family conflict being just a few.