The involvement of IL-17 in rejection of kidney graft has also been investigated.
Some documents hypothesize that the presence of IL-17 mRNA in urine samples could be considered as a predictive biomarker for rejection of kidney allograft in human and experimental models.
IL-17 and intragraft IL-17 inhibition appears to be useful for delaying allograft rejection.
Some reports showed that the expression of IL-17 increased from post-transplant day 3 and was strongest at post-transplant day 5; therefore, it could be a predictive parameter in acute renal allograft rejection in rats.
The role of IL-17 expression was not well studied in human renal allograft rejection.
In this serial study of IL-17 mRNA expression, we found that the level of IL-17 mRNA expression was higher in patients but differences were not statistically significant on post-transplant days 3 and 5.
Post-transplant monitoring of the clinical status of kidney transplants is critical for observation of allograft function.
An alteration in several functional factors suggests the occurrence of rejection, but allograft biopsy as an invasive method is required for confirmation.
RNA based biomarkers of urinary cells and peripheral blood cells changes primarily compared with serum creatinine levels in patients with kidney transplantation.
A molecular non-invasive biomarker provides an important tool for predictive and prognostic information regarding allograft function.
Urine biomarkers of renal allograft rejection include NKG2D mRNA, Tim-3 and IFN-g, FOXP3 mRNA, and CD103 mRNA. Many research centers investigate the clinical value of molecular biomarkers in human disorders.
This study showed that IL-17 gene expression profiling may be helpful in the selection of immunosuppressive therapy in the management of renal transplantation.
The present study has some limitations, including small number of tested patients, lack of cases with acute/chronic rejection, poor quality of histopathology data, and immune monitoring assay after renal transplantation.
Finally, our study did not compare results of patients serially after post-transplant day 5.
Follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the level of IL-17 mRNA expression after post-transplant day 5.
Conclusion In this serial study of IL-17 mRNA expression, the level of IL-17 mRNA expression was not statistically higher on post-transplant days 3 and 5 in patients with stable graft function.
There is a correlation between the absence of IL-17 and the stable allograft function.
It can be concluded that, in kidney transplant recipients, urinary IL-17 expression provides informative data in relation to allograft function, regardless of allograft patho-logy.