REPORT all year round but these need to

Objective 1

Product Analysis

Cristal is considering
replacing their old emergency lighting with new LED lights. The task is to
analyse the old and new designs, and compare them together to see how efficient
they are and if they are more cost effective for the company. The new
technology that they want to use are LED which are a new type of bulb. The
advantages to this is that they are a brighter bulb and they cost less to run
all year round but these need to meet the correct legal requirements for
emergency lighting.

Manufacturing Analysis

Glass dome manufacturing Process.
The glass dome is made form from silicon dioxide which is found in sand and
when heated to 1700 degrees melts into a liquid. To make the glass dome it goes
through a process of being compression moulded. This method is where the
moulding material which is generally preheated is placed into a heated mould cavity.
The mould is closed with a top force and pressure is applied to force the
material into the mould areas. The heat and pressure are maintained until the
moulding material has cooled.





Metal forming.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into flat pieces. Sheet
metal is used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of
shapes. The bulkhead light possibly made from sheet metal forming.






The metal
outer ring that is used to make the Bulkhead light is Die-Cast which means it is
made from a zinc alloy which is made up of zinc and 55%-95% of copper it is the
best alloy to use for the base due to its high strength and hardness also it’s
a more cost effective and will be better for mass production. The process to
make the metal base is die casting which is where molten metal is forced under
high pressure into a mould cavity.


Rubber manufacturing.

rubber is composed of silicone mixed together with carbon. The rubber is widely
used in all industries and there all different types of formations. The rubber
is good as it can stand extreme temperatures which means it will be good in the
summer and winter when on the factories at Cristal. The rubber can be made into
any shape which means whatever design they choose to put on their factories the
silicon rubber can be made to fit the light.



The bulb
holder in the bulkhead light is made from ceramic material this means that it
is strong and heat resistant. The ceramic due to it being resistant to heat
will stop the metal base and the glass dome from getting hot so if anyone
touched the lamp it won’t be a health and safety precaution. The manufacturing
process for ceramics is slip casting this method is where a liquid clay body is
poured into a plastic mould and allowed to form a layer on the Inside walls of
the mould. It is then biscuit fired in a kiln and then completely fired to give
it its final strength and finish.

Nuts and

Nuts and
bolts are standard components which are needed to put a product together for
example the bulkhead light. These items come in different sizes to fit your
product. The reason why most products are fitted with these standard components
is because they are easy to maintain and they are cheap. The material that nuts
and bolts are made out of is stainless steel which is lightweight material for
making the components. Another reason why stainless steel is because it means
that the nuts and bolts will be hardwearing and they will be tough. Nuts and
bolts come in different sizes as certain products need different bolts and also
the tolerances are different. A common standard is ISO68.











Life Cycle Analysis

Flow Chart
illustrating life cycle.

The lamp is made up from 4 key components – Dome, Base, Seal,
and Holder.

End of Life

The end of life considerations is where the designers have to
think about what is going to happen to the product once it is finished with.
The main point is recycling companies have to choose certain materials which
they think will be able to recycled in the future. The processes they can use
to recycle products is that melting the plastics down and disassembling the products.

Glass because the
glass can be recycled at the end of its life span and the process is for it to
be melted.
Die Cast because it is an easy
process to make the metal bases, also it can be melted down to recycle the
Rubber and Ceramics are down cycled this
is a recycling
practice that involves breaking an item down into its component elements or
materials. This process is only used to recycle products if
they cannot be reused. For example tires can be recycled into fuel. The emissions
made from rubber to make fuel is a lot lower than when it is made from coal. This
means that recycled rubber is more environmentally friendly.


IP Ratings.

IP ratings are a mark on a product that show if the product
is for example waterproof or dust resistant. The first number in the mark means
the degree of protection of solids. The second number defines the protection level
for example it being waterproof.
IP44 makes the product resistant from water and dust this is key as if the
product is outside then it makes sure that it can’t get ruined. This is a good
thing to have but IP65 is better due to the numbers being higher.
IP65 makes the product water and dust resistant which means the market is wider
for the product and it means it can survive in all different industries where
there is lots of dust and water.
IK rating is where it shows how much the product can resist impact it ranges
from 0.14 joules of impact to 20 joules of impact. This is a good thing to have
in a product especially if the product is in the industry working around
machines and buildings.


The British
Standards mark which are on products is where it ensures that the product is
safe in the UK. The bulkhead light follows these British Standards by having BSEN
1838 which calls for a minimum of 1 LUX anywhere on the centre line of the
escape route for normal risks.



The CE marking is the symbol that is a mark on products that
ensure that it is safe in Europe. This is a good mark to have on the bulkhead
light as it means that it can be sold all over Europe which means the wider the
market is and more products are sold.

bulkhead light is very important in ensuring that the area you’re working in is
safe and well lit. This means that the lights have to go through vigorous
testing to make sure that they are water and dust resistant also they are fire
resistant to make sure they don’t melt in extreme heat, that’s why the bulkhead
light is made from the zinc alloy so that it is more hardwearing than any other


Objective 2.

Existing Products and Compare.

-This light is a single bar emergency light that has an emergency
backup with a rechargeable battery that lasts for 3 hours. Also due to it have
LED lights in it, it is more efficient which means it will be more cost
effective to run. Another thing which is good about it is that it has IP65
which means it has a higher dust and water resistant class. Another
disadvantage to it is that the power is only 2.6 watts which means it won’t be
very bright in and around buildings for example on a power station.








-Another light is an outdoor emergency bulkhead which is made
from a polycarbonate material which means it will be light and due to it having
LED lights it means that it will be more energy efficient. Another advantage is
that it has a 14 watts lights which means it will be more powerful which means
it will be better for outdoors. Also with it having IP65 it is dust resistant
and water resistant which means it can be used in all types of industries.









Another light that I’ve looked at has IP44 which means that
it is water resistant and dust resistant which would be good if it was it was
on the docs or anywhere near the sea. The lamp is made from two materials steel
and plastic the plastic is a good material as it is durable whereas the steel
isn’t as good as it will corrode over time. The lamp has a good powerful light
of 16 watts which means it will be bright also with its LED bulbs it will be
efficient when on all the time.




Summary of
Research – Identifying an ideal product.

The product that I think Cristal would be best using out of
the three is the first one as it has IP65 which means it is water and dust
resistant at a higher level which a good thing as it is will be outside and
inside of the factory buildings where there is a lot of dust and water. Another
upside to this product is that it has an emergency rechargeable battery which
lasts for 3 hours, this is good as if there is a fire or there is a power cut
the bulkhead light will still be able to light up a corridor or a room around
the buildings. The downsides of the light is that it doesn’t have IP44 which
means it isn’t water resistant and also the LED lights aren’t very bright at
2.6 watts. But the downsides are a lot smaller than the upsides to the light
which means in my opinion it’ll be better for Cristal.





Disassembly –







The disassembly stage is where you start with the full
product then on the two sides of the metal base there is two screws, unscrew
them until the metal outer ring becomes loose. Once that has happened lift the
outer ring out and lift the glass dome from the top. Inside you’ll see a metal
reflective plate and the ceramic bulb holder. At the bottom the light inside
there will be a screw, unscrew that and then the reflective plate and the
ceramic bulb holder will be free. This is how you dissemble the bulkhead light.