In “The Fault in Our Stars”, by John Green, the author uses many techniques to successfully develop themes related to social issues, defining moments like life and death, and family. The characters are in many ways like everyone else, but they are constantly reminded that they are different than their healthy peers. They face the issue of dying on a daily basis and are affected by their cancer in many ways, some of which affect other people close to them.The characters in “The Fault in Our Stars” are in many ways like everyone else, who love music, video games, popular culture, and dating, but they are constantly reminded that they are different than their healthy peers. They have many physical differences such as; prosthetics, oxygen tanks, puffy cheeks; are big signs of their differences, but in a more subtle way. Their differences often make other people feel uncomfortable and isolated, creating separations between those with the illness and those without it. This separation is shown while Hazel is shopping with her friend, Kaitlyn. While shopping, Kaitlyn calmly says she would “die” if she had to walk in a pair of heels she has found on the shelf. She stops and looks likes she wants to apologize as if it is wrong to joke about death in front of the dying. Although Hazel is not offended by her comment, the fact of her cancer makes Kaitlyn unable to talk in the way she would with anyone else. Later a young girl asks Hazel why she has to carry an oxygen tank. The little girl’s mother is ashamed by her daughter’s question, but Hazel simply explains her situation to the girl, limiting the distance between them.The novel shows those living with cancer in ways that limit such cancer are not any more noble, brave, or spiritual than other kids, they are just regular kids living with an illness. Augustus becomes a clear example of the reality of young people who are living with and dying from cancer. After his cancer comes back, Augustus, the energetic, funny, and confident boy is reduced to a weak, scared, and a shameful individual. The honesty in which Hazel shows the end of his life does not allow his illness to place him in any special category of a person and therefore limits the difference between him and any other person who is dying.The characters in “The Fault in Our Stars” face the issue of dying on a daily basis. Although the characters try to live by their support group mantra, “Living our best lives today”, every action, relationship, and experience is cast in the shadow of their upcoming deaths. The theme of life and death unfolds through Hazel’s relationship with Augustus. It is no mistake that Hazel first forms a bond with Augustus through a dialog about death and oblivion during their support group. Both Hazel and Augustus are particularly sensitive when it comes to their own deaths. They are forced to face questions that most young people do not have to face, but their concerns revolve around their common existence, for example, how do you find meaning in life and death? How do you leave behind a legacy? How does one’s death affect others? Is there an afterlife, and if not, what is there? Their development as characters happens through these questions.Their personal concerns about death develop along different paths. Augustus is afraid of fading into nothing after he dies, that his life will be pointless, and nobody will remember him once he is gone. After bringing this fear up in the support group. Hazel responds by analyzing the fact of her life. She states that everything will die, that there was a time before consciousness and there will be a time after it, even though her analysis, however, she is still deeply conflicted around the issue of her own looming death. Unlike Augustus’ self-centered fear of fading into nothing, Hazel views her approaching death as an event that will severely hurt those around her, like she is a grenade waiting to explode. She is mostly concerned with protecting those around her from the pain of her death. This concern causes her to distance herself from her friends and her family, which limits her want to do the things normal teenagers do. Her fear of hurting others through her passing leads to her obsession with the fictional novel, “An Imperial Affliction”. She relates with the book because it presents an accurate portrayal of death and dying, but Hazel becomes obsessed by what happens after the novel’s sudden ending. Hazel longs to know the fate of the family in “An Imperial Affliction” after the main character passes, believing this knowledge will give her understanding of the effect her death will have on her family.Hazel and Augustus come to terms with their temporary nature through their relationship. Augustus can achieve his one act of heroism by giving up his wish from “The Genie Foundation” to take Hazel to Amsterdam. However, his legacy lives on with Hazel and her parents. Hazel also develops new understandings of life and death through her relationship with Augustus. Through their relationship, she can step out of her isolation and live her life for the first time, even in the face of her upcoming death. When Augustus’ cancer comes back and he passes away, she is able to experience what it is like to lose someone you love and work through it, which allows her to come to terms with the fact that her family will be able to make it through her own death. Hazel also comes to understand that death is an event that allows us to value life. She shows this understanding during Augustus’ eulogy when she says, “without pain, we would not know joy”, she understands that death is an event that allows us to live and love to the fullest. In the end, it becomes clear that life is defined by our relationships with others, and the importance and meaning of these relationships are shown through the pain felt when a loved one dies.The Fault in Our Stars not only explores the ways in which cancer affects those who are diagnosed but also shows the way in which their families and friends react to their diagnoses. The parents of the young people living with cancer react to the loss of their children in different ways. The reactions of Hazel’s parents show the way in which a cancer diagnosis places parents in a very hard situation as they attempt to parent a teenage child. They want her to be a normal teenager, which is why they recommend she go to the cancer support group and meet other young people, but at the same time, they are protective and overbearing. As they strongly encourage her to mature into an adult, they continue to cling to her youth, the time in which she was healthy, as shown by their strong desire that she sleeps with “Bluie”, her childhood teddy bear, and the celebration of her “half birthdays”. Augustus’ parents react differently, by trying to fight cancer by staying positive. They put boring statements and quotes all around their house which are a constant reminder for them to stay hopeful.Both Hazel and Augustus find their parents annoying, but in the end understand that their parents just love them and are dealing with their situations to the best of their ability. Hazel, however, feels a great sense of guilt because of the way her condition affects her parents. She knows that her very existence causes her parent’s immense pain, stating that, “They might be glad to have me around, but I was the alpha and the omega of my parents’ suffering”. She also feels a large guilt over her parent’s lack of money and the time they give to make sure she is safe and cared for. Hazel also fears that her death will tear the family apart. This fear is another factor in her obsession with the novel “An Imperial Affliction”. For Hazel, the novel’s characters come to represent her own experience. In “An Imperial Afflictions”, the main character, a young girl named Anna dies because of her cancer. The novel ends suddenly with Anna’s death, which leads Hazel to search for answers about what happens to Anna’s mother and her mother’s partner, the tulip man, after the novel’s end. She believes that gaining understanding of Anna’s experience will allow her to know what will happen to her parents after she passes.Hazel and Augustus go to Amsterdam to find out what happens to Anna’s parents after she dies, but their hopes are crushed after the novel’s author, Peter Van Houten, drunkenly tells them that nothing exists after the novel ends. This answer becomes a great concern for Hazel, leading her to believe that after her own death, nothing, including her parents and family, will exist. This belief, however, is replaced by the end of the novel in several ways. First, Hazel experiences Augustus’ death and watches his family come together and work through it. Secondly, she learns that Peter Van Houten had written “An Imperial Affliction” about his own daughter who had died of cancer, suggesting that even though the novel ends with Anna’s death, Van Houten has continued to exist, even though her death has pushed him over the edge into alcoholism and ill will . Finally, Hazel learns that her mother is studying to become a cancer counselor for young people, which allows her to know that even after she dies, her mother will continue to love her through loving other children fated in the way she was and that her parents will not fail in the way Peter Van Houten has.As you can see the author, John Green has successfully developed themes related to social issues, defining moments, family in the novel “The Fault in Our Stars. The characters face and overcome many issues throughout the novel, some of the issues affected people close to the main characters, but they never let those issues stop them completely, they almost always found a different way.