CHAPTER the fundamentals of music theory, aural skills,

CHAPTER
1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1
Background of the Study

In 1984, Faculty of Music
was started as Music Department under the School of Art and Design. Music in
UiTM has been offered as an elective subject since 1980. School of Art and
Design intends to offer Advanced Diploma in Music equivalent to a General
degree. This course was approved by the Ministry of Education on June 21, 1983
and the first student cohort entered 1984 under the Music Department, School of
Art and Design. UiTM is the first institution of higher learning in the country
to offer a degree in music.

UiTM’s is one of the
public universities in Malaysia that offers music programs which focused on the
development of academic excellence, professional skills with critical and
creative thinking abilities. There are five under-graduate programs offered
which are Diploma in Music, Bachelor of Music Education, Bachelor of Music
Composition, Bachelor of Music Performance and Bachelor of Music Business.

Diploma in Music is a
student preparation music program within two and a half years before entering a
bachelor’s degree program. This program provides two components namely
practical and musical theory to introduce the fundamentals of music theory,
aural skills, history, vocal or instrumental studies to the students.
Additionally, the program also provides opportunities for students to engage in
solo performances as well as groups such as traditional ensemble, modern
ensemble, orchestra, and choir.

Bachelor of Music
Education (Hons.) is a music program within four years of study. This program
combines the teaching of intensive education with the practical experience of
teachers when in local school classes. The program focuses on three areas of
music namely music education, education and the application of music technology
in education.

Next, Bachelor of Music
Performance (Hons.) is a music program within three years of learning. This
program focuses on the development of student skills in playing their main
musical instrument through solo or group performances as well as theoretical
components in music programs such as analysis and academic project paper. The
program also gives students the opportunity to participate in international,
local, class, workshop, lectures and lectures featuring local and international
musicians.

The Bachelor of Music
Composition (Hons) provides an opportunity for students to choose work in the
field of Popular Music or Fine Arts. This three-year music program gives
students the opportunity to explore their musical ideas and their own voice
composition through exposure to the diversity of musical styles, theories and
literature including orchestral techniques, backbone and tone structure, new
music, organizers, film scores and technology music.

Same goes with the Bachelor
of Business Music (Hons.) which enables students to develop critical
expectations and needs in a business environment and critical music management
by working in business leadership and ethics, studying cases and through famous
guest lectures. This three-year degree program also focuses on the required
working environment and key players required by the music industry and
professional entrepreneurs.

Diploma and degree
programs are a challenging music field that requires thinking skills,
intelligence, patience and persistence. Creative talents born from a student
should be planted with expert guidance. A thorough understanding of the
diversity of music, style and genre along with the spirit to convey human
emotion through sounds is a key feature of a successful person. Therefore,
students at Faculty of Music UiTM will maintain a strong work ethic in research
and academic excellence.

 

Students of UiTM Faculty
of Music have been offered to choose learning the classical, jazz, modern or
Malaysian traditional music style. This optional will cover syllabus of forms
and principles analysis, aural training, interpretation, performance study,
history etc. In addition, students will be involved in music performances such
as choirs, orchestras, large groups, guitar ensembles etc. For traditional
music courses, it included Gamelan, Caklempong, Keroncong, Asli and Malay
percussion.

            Malay
traditional music is a heritage of Malaysia that must be preserved so that
Malaysia’s identity can be maintained. It has various types of music including Inang,
Joget, Zapin, Nobat, Kompang, Ghazal, Dondang Sayang etc. However, this kind of
music are still unfamiliar among the younger generation. Hence, it is important
especially for the younger generation to preserve the Malay culture as it
symbolizes the historical value of the Malay community and is dedicated to
supporting the economic stability in Malaysia as well as contributed to the
diversity of Malay culture in Malaysia which represents of our lifestyle and
identity (Zaharul & Shahanum, 2015).  

Traditional music courses
in UiTM Faculty of Music focused on several types of ensemble which are
Gamelan, Caklempong, Keroncong, Asli, Malay Percussion etc. The way of teaching
and learning traditional music is different among lecturers in the music
faculty. However, most lecturers begin teaching sessions with the introduction
of the cultural context and traditional music backgrounds concerned before
moving into practical components. The lecturer will explain about the history,
ethics in training and performances, explaining the role of each musical
instrument in the ensemble as well as aspects of the care and maintenance of

traditional musical instruments. For
example, in Keroncong ensemble learning process, the most important learning
method is that students need to play music that have been taught and
practically practiced and repetition techniques are very important so students
can remember what they have learned.

1.2
Problem Statement

The traditional music
course is a compulsory music subject in UiTM Faculty of Music. Each of the
students in UiTM Faculty of Music is guided with a respective lecturer as well
as to teach, observe and supervise student’s knowledge, skills and techniques
in playing traditional musical instrument. Fundamentally, lecturers will
explain about the history of the traditional music, teach how to analyse or
read the score such as for Gamelan and Keroncong and demonstrate the techniques
to play the traditional music instruments. Traditional music course involves
the learning and application of techniques, knowledge and skills of playing
traditional music instrument, performing traditional musical pieces as well as the
utilization of the traditional music instrument (Shahanum, 2013).

               The problem of this study was to
determine whether students’ interest, effort and usefulness of their learning
styles influenced their traditional music learning process at UiTM Faculty of
Music. This study therefore aims to investigate students’ motivation in
learning traditional music according to three intrinsic motivation dimensions
include (interest, effort and usefulness). Various perceptions which contribute
to their motivation to learn traditional music such as personal factors and
social factors influences will be looked at. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3
Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to
examine the music major students’ motivation and issues in learning traditional
music course in Faculty of Music, UiTM Shah Alam. The objectives of this study
are as follows:

·        
To study students’ perceptions towards
learning traditional music according to three intrinsic motivation dimensions
(interest, effort and usefulness) at UiTM Faculty of Music.

·        
To investigate the issues faced by
students in learning traditional music at UiTM Faculty of Music.

 

1.4
Research Questions

The study aimed to answer the following research
questions:

·        
What are the students’ perceptions towards
learning traditional music according to three intrinsic motivation dimensions
(interest, effort and usefulness) at UiTM Faculty of Music?

·        
What are the issues faced by students in
learning traditional music at UiTM Faculty of Music?

 

1.5
Significance of the Study

This research was looked up into students’
motivation and issues in learning traditional music according to three
intrinsic motivation which is interest, effort and usefulness. This study
should help students who enrolled in music program to enlighten more about
music traditional course that offered in UiTM Faculty of Music. This study also
can help lecturer to know more about students’ perceptions towards learning
traditional music and lecturer also can solve problems faced by students in
learning traditional music.

1.6
Scope of the Study

This study focused among students in UiTM
Faculty of Music. The data that researcher was collected is from randomly respondents
who enrolled in Music Education (MU220), Music Composition (MU221), Music
Performance (MU222), Music Business (MU223) and Diploma in music (MU110)
program.

 

1.7
Limitations of the Study

This study directed probably challenged
with several difficult that may affect the outcome and the aim that need to be
achieved. The study was focused on the traditional music subject only. This
study was conducted among the Diploma in music students (MU110) and also degree
students from different programs which is Bachelor of Music Education (MU220),
Bachelor of Music Composition (MU221), Bachelor of Music Performance (MU222) and
Bachelor in Music Business (MU223). Since the study was conducted at one
faculty, the data will only reflect the actual situation of music students at
Faculty of Music, UiTM Shah Alam which only consists of Bumiputeras.